New York State Learning Standards
Mathematics, Science, and Technology
Analysis, Inquiry, and Design: ENGINEERING DESIGN
Key Idea 1: details
Engineering design is an iterative process involving modeling and optimization (finding the best solution within given constraints); this process is used to develop technological solutions to problems within given constraints. (Note: The design process could apply to activities from simple investigations to long-term projects.)
Elementary 1.1 Describe objects, imaginary or real, that might be modeled or made differently and suggest ways in which the objects can be changed, fixed, or improved 1.2 Investigate prior solutions and ideas from books, magazines, family, friends, neighbors, and community members 1.3 Generate ideas for possible solutions, individually and through group activity; apply age-appropriate mathematics and science skills; evaluate the ideas and determine the best solution; and explain reasons for the choices 1.4 Plan and build, under supervision, a model of the solution using familiar materials, processes, and hand tools 1.5 Discuss how best to test the solution; perform the test under teacher supervision; record and portray results through numerical and graphic means; discuss orally why things worked or didn't work; and summarize results in writing, suggesting ways to make the solution better
Intermediate T1.1 Identify needs and opportunities for technical solutions from an investigation of situations of general or social interest. T1.1a Identify a scientific or human need that is subject to a technological solution which applies scientific principles √ T1.2 Locate and utilize a range of printed, electronic, and human information resources to obtain ideas. √ T1.2a Use all available information systems for a preliminary search that addresses the need. √ T1.3 Consider constraints and generate several ideas for alternative solutions, using group and individual ideation techniques (group discussion, brainstorming, forced connections, role play); defer judgment until a number of ideas have been generated; evaluate (critique) ideas; and explain why the chosen solution is optimal. √ T1.3a Generate ideas for alternative solutions √ T1.3b Evaluate alternatives based on the constraints of design √ T1.4 Develop plans, including drawings with measurements and details of construction, and construct a model of the solution, exhibiting a degree of craftsmanship. √ T1.4a Design and construct a model of the product or process √ T1.4b Construct a model of the product or process √ T1.5 In a group setting, test their solution against design specifications, present and evaluate results, describe how the solution might have been modified for different or better results, and discuss trade-offs that might have to be made. √ T1.5a Test a design √ T1.5b Evaluate a design √
Commencement 1.1 Initiate and carry out a thorough investigation of an unfamiliar situation and identify needs and opportunities for technological invention or innovation 1.2 identify, locate, and use a wide range of information resources including subject experts, library references, magazines, videotapes, films, electronic data bases and online services, and discuss and document through notes and sketches how findings relate to the problem 1.3 generate creative solution ideas, break ideas into the significant functional elements, and explore possible refinements; predict possible outcomes using mathematical and functional modeling techniques; choose the optimal solution to the problem, clearly documenting ideas against design criteria and constraints; and explain how human values, economics, ergonomics, and environmental considerations have influenced the solution 1.4 develop work schedules and plans which include optimal use and cost of materials, processes, time, and expertise; construct a model of the solution, incorporating developmental modifications while working to a high degree of quality (craftsmanship) 1.5 in a group setting, devise a test of the solution relative to the design criteria and perform the test; record, portray, and logically evaluate performance test results through quanitative, graphic, and verbal means; and use a variety of creative verbal and graphic techniques effectively and persuasively to present conclusions, predict impacts and new problems, and suggest and pursue modifications
Key Idea 1: details
Information technology is used to retrieve, process, and communicate information as a tool to enhance learning.
Elementary 1.1 Use computer technology,traditional paper-based resources,and interpersonal discussions to learn, do, and share science in the classroom √ 1.2 Select appropriate hardware and software that aids in wordprocessing, creating databases, telecommunications, graphing, data display, and other tasks √ 1.3 Use information technology to link the classroom to world events
Intermediate 1.1 Use a range of equipment and software to integrate several forms of information in order to create good-quality audio, video, graphic, and text-based presentations. 1.2 Use spreadsheets and database software to collect, process, display, and analyze information. Students access needed information from electronic databases and on-line telecommunication services. 1.3 Systematically obtain accurate and relevant information pertaining to a particular topic from a range of sources, including local and national media, libraries, muse- ums, governmental agencies, industries, and individuals. 1.4 Collect data from probes to measure events and phenomena. 1.4a Collect the data, using the appropriate, available tool 1.4b Organize the data 1.4c Use the collected data to communicate a scientific concept √ 1.5 Use simple modeling programs to make predictions.
Physics 1.1 Understand and use the more advanced features of word processing, spreadsheets, and database software. 1.2 Prepare multimedia presentations demonstrating a clear sense of audience and purpose. (Note: Multimedia may include posters, slides, images, presentation software, etc.) √ 1.2a Extend knowledge of physical phenomena through independent investigation, e.g., literature review, electronic resources, library research 1.2b Use appropriate technology to gather experimental data, develop models,and present results √ 1.3 Access, select, collate, and analyze information obtained from a wide range of sources such as research databases, foundations, organizations, national libraries, and electronic communication networks, including the Internet. 1.3a Use knowledge of physics to evaluate articles in the popular press on contemporary scientific topics 1.4 Utilize electronic networks to share information. √ 1.5 Model solutions to a range of problems in mathematics, science, and technology, using computer simulation software. √ 1.5a Use software to model and extend classroom and laboratory experiences,recognizing the differences between the model used for understanding and real-world behavior √
Technology: Engineering Design
Key Idea 1:
(See Standard 1:ENGINEERING DESIGN)
Technology: Computer Technology
Key Idea 3: details
Computers, as tools for design, modeling, information processing, communication, and system control, have greatly increased human productivity and knowledge.
Elementary 3.1 Identify and describe the function of the major components of a computer system. 3.2 Use the computer as a tool for generating and drawing ideas. √ 3.3 Control computerized devices and systems through programming. √ 3.4 Model and simulate the design of a complex environment by giving direct commands. √
Intermediate 3.1 Assemble a computer system including keyboard, central processing unit and disc drives, mouse, modem, printer, and monitor 3.2 Use a computer system to connect to and access needed information from various Internet sites √ 3.3 Use computer hardware and software to draw and dimension prototypical designs √ 3.4 Use a computer as a modeling tool √ 3.5 Use a computer system to monitor and control external events and/or systems √
Commencement 3.1 Understand basic computer architecture and describe the function of computer subsystems and peripheral devices 3.2 Select a computer system that meets personal needs 3.3 Attach a modem to a computer system and telephone line, set up and use communications software, connect to various online networks, including the Internet, and access needed information using email, telnet, gopher, ftp, and web searches √ 3.4 Use computer-aided drawing and design (CADD) software to model realistic solutions to design problems √ 3.5 Develop an understanding of computer programming and attain some facility in writing computer programs √
Technology: Technological Systems
Key Idea 4: details
Technological systems are designed to achieve specific results and produce outputs, such as products, structures, services, energy, or other systems.
Elementary 4.1 Identify familiar examples of technological systems that are used to satisfy human needs and wants, and select them on the basis of safety, cost, and function. 4.2 Assemble and operate simple technological systems, including those with interconnecting mechanisms to achieve different kinds of movement. 4.3 Understand that larger systems are made up of smaller component subsystems.
Intermediate 4.1 Select appropriate technological systems on the basis of safety, function, cost, ease of operation, and quality of post-purchase support 4.2 Assemble, operate, and explain the operation of simple open- and closed-loop electrical, electronic, mechanical, and pneumatic systems 4.3 Describe how subsystems and system elements (inputs, processes, outputs) interact within systems 4.4 Describe how system control requires sensing information, processing it, and making changes √
Commencement 4.1 Explain why making tradeoffs among characteristics, such as safety, function, cost, ease of operation, quality of post-purchase support, and environmental impact, is necessary when selecting systems for specific purposes 4.2 Model, explain, and analyze the performance of a feedback control system 4.3 Explain how complex technological systems involve the confluence of numerous other systems
Interconnectedness: Common Themes SYSTEMS THINKING:
Key Idea 1: details
Through systems thinking, people can recognize the commonalities that exist among all systems and how parts of a system interrelate and combine to perform specific functions.
Elementary 1.1 Observe and describe interactions among components of simple systems. √ 1.2 Identify common things that can be considered to be systems (e.g., a plant population, a subway system, human beings).
Intermediate 1.1 Describe the differences between dynamic systems and organizational systems. 1.2 describe the differences and similarities between engineering systems, natural systems, and social systems. 1.3 Describe the differences between open- and closed-loop systems. 1.4 Describe how the output from one part of a system (which can include material, energy, or information) can become the input to other parts.
Commencement 1.1 Explain how positive feedback and negative feedback have opposite effects on system outputs. 1.2 Use an input-process-output-feedback diagram to model and compare the behavior of natural and engineered systems. 1.3 Define boundary conditions when doing systems analysis to determine what influences a system and how it behaves.
Interconnectedness: Common Themes MODELS:
Key Idea 2: details
Models are simplified representations of objects, structures, or systems used in analysis, explanation, interpretation, or design.
Elementary 2.1 Analyze,construct,and operate models in order to discover attributes of the real thing √ 2.2 Discover that a model of something is different from the real thing but can be used to study the real thing √ 2.3 Use different types of models, such as graphs,sketches,diagrams,and maps,to represent various aspects of the real world
Intermediate 2.1 Select an appropriate model to begin the search for answers or solutions to a question or problem. 2.2 Use models to study processes that cannot be studied directly (e.g., when the real process is too slow, too fast, or too dangerous for direct observation). √ 2.3 Demonstrate the effectiveness of different models to represent the same thing and the same model to represent different things.
Physics 2.1 Revise a model to create a more complete or improved representation of the system. 2.2 Collect information about the behavior of a system and use modeling tools to represent the operation of the system. √ 2.2a Use observations of the behavior of a system to develop a model 2.3 Find and use mathematical models that behave in the same manner as the processes under investigation. 2.3a Represent the behavior of real-world systems,using physical and mathematical models √ 2.4 Compare predictions to actual observations, using test models. √ 2.4a Validate or reject a model based on collated experimental data √ 2.4b Predict the behavior of a system,using a model √
Interdisciplinary Problem Solving STRATEGIES:
Key Idea 2: details
Solving interdisciplinary problems involves a variety of skills and strategies, including effective work habits; gathering and processing information; generating and analyzing ideas; realizing ideas; making connections among the common themes of mathematics, science, and technology; and presenting results.
Physics 2.1 Collect,analyze,interpret,and present data,using appropriate tools √ 2.2 When students participate in an extended,culminating mathematics,science,and technology project, then students should: Work effectively—Contributing to the work of a brainstorming group, laboratory partnership, cooperative learning group, or project team; planning procedures; identify and managing responsibilities of team members; and staying on task, whether working alone or as part of a group. √ Gather and process information —Accessing information from printed media, electronic data bases, and community resources and using the information to develop a definition of the problem and to research possible solutions. √ Generate and analyze ideas — Developing ideas for proposed solutions, investigating ideas, collecting data, and showing relationships and patterns in the data. √ Observe common themes—Observing examples of common unifying themes, applying them to the problem, and using them to better understand the dimensions of the problem. √ Realize ideas—Constructing components or models, arriving at a solution, and evaluating the result. √ Present results—Using a variety of media to present the solution and to communicate the results. √
Standard 2: Integrated Learningdetails
Students will demonstrate how academic knowledge and skills are applied in the workplace and other settings.
Integrated learning encourages students to use essential academic concepts, facts, and procedures in applications related to life skills and the world of work. This approach allows students to see the usefulness of the concepts that they are being asked to learn and to understand their potential application in the world of work.
Elementary 2.1 Identify academic knowledge and skills that are required in specific occupations 2.2 Demonstrate the difference between the knowledge of a skill and the ability to use the skill √ 2.3 Solve problems that call for applying academic knowledge and skills. √
Intermediate 2.1 Apply academic knowledge and skills using an interdisciplinary approach to demonstrate the relevance of how these skills are applied in work-related situations in local, state, national, and international communities 2.2 Solve problems that call for applying academic knowledge and skills √ 2.3 Use academic knowledge and skills in an occupational context, and demonstrate the application of these skills by using a variety of communication techniques (e.g., sign language, pictures, videos, reports, and technology).
Commencement 2.1 Demonstrate the integration and application of academic and occupational skills in their school learning, work, and personal lives. 2.2 Use academic knowledge and skills in an occupational context, and demonstrate the application of these skills by using a variety of communication techniques (e.g., sign language, pictures, videos, reports, and technology) 2.3 Research, interpret, analyze, and evaluate information and experiences as related to academic knowledge and technical skills when completing a career plan.
Standard 3a: Universal Foundation Skillsdetails
Students will demonstrate mastery of the foundation skills and competencies essential for success in the workplace.
Thinking skillsThinking skills lead to problem solving, experimenting, and focused observation and allow the application of knowledge to new and unfamiliar situations.
Elementary 3.2.1 Use ideas and information to make decisions and solve problems related to accomplishing a task. √
Intermediate 3.2.1 Evaluate facts, solve advanced problems, and make decisions by applying logic and reasoning skills. √
Commencement 3.2.1 Demonstrate the ability to organize and process information and apply skills in new ways. √
Technology is the process and product of human skill and ingenuity in designing and creating things from available resources to satisfy personal and societal needs and wants.
Elementary 3.5.1 Demonstrate an awareness of the different types of technology available to them and of how technology affects society.
Intermediate 3.5.1 Select and use appropriate technology to complete a task. √
Commencement 3.5.1 Apply their knowledge of technology to identify and solve problems. √
- Managing Resources
Using resources includes the application of financial and human factors, and the elements of time and materials to successfully carry out a planned activity.
Elementary 3.7.1 Demonstrate an awareness of the knowledge, skills, abilities, and resources needed to complete a task. √
Intermediate 3.7.1 Understand the material, human, and financial resources needed to accomplish tasks and activities. √
Commencement 3.7.1 Allocate resources to complete a task. √
Systems skills include the understanding of and ability to work within natural and constructed systems.
Elementary 3.8.1 Demonstrate understanding of how a system operates and identify where to obtain information and resources within the system. √
Intermediate 3.8.1 Understand the process of evaluating and modifying systems within an organization. √
Commencement 3.8.1 Demonstrate an understanding of how systems performance relates to the goals, resources, and functions of an organization. √
Standard 3b: Career Majorsdetails
Students who choose a career major will acquire the career-specific technical knowledge/skills necessary to progress toward gainful employment, career advancement, and success in postsecondary programs.
Core, Specialized and Experiential 3b.1 Foundation Development—Develop practical understanding of engineering technology through reading, writing, sample problem solving, and employment experiences. 3b.2 Technology—Demonstrate how all types of engineering/technical organizations, equipment (hardware/software), and well-trained human resources assist and expedite the production/distribution of goods and services 3b.3 Engineering/Industrial Processes—Demonstrate knowledge of planning, product development and utilization, and evaluation that meets the needs of industry.
|Meshes||All objects in Blender are meshes, which are made of points, vertices, edges and faces.|
|Point||The origin point describes the location of the object.
The orange dot represents the origin point. The shape of the object is built around this point.
|Vertex||A vertex point is just a point. A mesh is made up of a series of these points.
To create a new vertex point, in Edit mode select an existing vertex point then press Ctrl+LMB.
|Edge||Edges connect vertices together.
An edge connects two vertices by a straight line. Think of edges as wires that you can see when you look at a mesh in wireframe view. They are usually invisible on the rendered image. They are used to construct faces. To create an edge from two selected vertices press F.
|Face||A face is made when edges and vertices combine together to form a solid surface.
A face is defined as the area between either three (triangles) or four (quadrangles) vertices, with an edge on every side. Triangles are always flat and therefore easy to calculate. On the other hand, quadrangles deform well and are therefore preferred for subdivision modeling.
To create a face, select three or four suitable vertices and press F.
Object and Edit Modes
To toggle back and forth between Object and Edit Mode, or Sculpt and Edit Mode press TAB.
To deselect all the vertices, edges and faces in Edit Mode, press A.
You can choose which mode you want to be in by selecting the appropriate button:
Alternatively, when in Edit mode you can switch among the options by pressing CTRL+TAB+1, 2 or 3
In Vertex Select Mode, select a vertex by RMB clicking on it. Then press G to move it.
The Limit selection to visible button:
is used to toggle whether the mesh in Edit Mode renders as a fully opaque solid, or whether the faces are slightly transparent.
To select several vertices, you have several options:
- Border select-press B
- Circular Select-press C
- Select-press A
- Invert Selection-press CTRL+I
- More-press NUM+ (on Mac Laptop, hold FN, CTRL,+)
- Less-press NUM- (on Mac Laptop, hold FN, CTRL,-)
- Linked- press Ctrl+L
- Select Non Manifold-press Ctrl+ Shift+Alt+M
- Linked Flat Faces-press Ctrl+ Shift+Alt+F (Only works in Face Select Mode)
ExtrudeExtrusion is the process of pulling or pushing a selected face.
To extrude a face, select it and press E. To confirm the extrusion, click the LMB. Now you can scale rotate and move.
You can also select multiple faces and press ALT +E to extrude multiple faces.
FillF calls the Fill command to create a new face from selected vertices. You must select at least 3 vertices before pressing F to make a face from the selection. If you select 2 vertices and then press F, you will create an edge.
EdgeLoopsAn edgeloop is where a set of vertices are connected in a line, or sometimes a circle. Press CTRL+R to create an edgeloop.
- A purple preview of the new edgeloop is shown.
You can move this around before finalizing the move with LMB
- After LMB, you can move the mouse to slide the edgeloop into place (Press 0 if you don't want the loop moved from the center).
- Another LMB anchors the edgeloop into place
- If you want to move the edgeloop after clicking LMB, then select an edge of the loop and press CTRL+E then select Edge Loop then Edge Slide (Edge Slide is also found in the Deform Section of the Tool Shelf)
Edge MenuPressing CTRL+E brings up the Edge Menu.
Pressing X brings up the delete menu. You can select edgeloop and delete an entire line of vertices.
Merging VerticesIn Vertex Select Mode, you can select any number of vertices and then press ALT+M to bring up the Merge Vertices Menu.
Joining and separating verticesIn Object Mode, you can combine separate mesh objects into one by pressing SHIFT-RMB-selecting them and then pressing CTRL+J. While you have created a single mesh, you will probably still run into trouble printing the file. Before pressing CTRL+J you should select both meshes and add a boolean modifier of type union:
- Select one object then SHIFT+RMB on the second object.
- Navigate to Modifiers (the wrench)
- Click on Add Modifiers and select Boolean
- Select Union
- Set the Object to the mesh in the list that was included in the selection
- Select Apply
- Deselect both objects then select them both and press CTRL+J
In Edit Mode, you can split a mesh using the P key. Select faces you want to separate, press P and choose Selection from the menu.
You might want to subtract one object from another. Here is how you would subtract a cylinder from a cube:
- Start with a cube
- Add a Cylinder Mesh by pressing SHIFT+A. You can adjust the size on the left side:
- Select the cylinder and then SHIFT+click on the cube
- Navigate to Modifiers (the wrench)
- Click on Add Modifiers and select Boolean
- Select Difference
- Set the Object to Cylinder:
- Select Apply
- Select the cylinder
- Press X to delete
- Here is the finished cube:
- Start with a cube.
- In front view move the view off center by holding down the MMB and dragging the mouse to one side. Holding down SHIFT with the MMB will move window.
- SHIFT +MMB to view the wrench. This is the Modifiers tab.
- Open the Modifiers Tab and click on Add Modifier
- Under the Generate column (left), select Multiresolution
- Click the subdivide button a few times
- With the cube selected, switch to Sculpt Mode
- Turn on X Symmetry
- Experiment with the brushes
LMB to sculpt with them
- Using primitive shapes, piece together a character.
- The Ten Cube Challenge
For any model, use ten cubes. You may stretch the cube, but it must always remain a box.
- Use difference to make your models.
- Sculpt something
- Select your model
- Go to Edit mode (press TAB)
- Select All (A)
- Select Mesh:Vertices:Remove Doubles
- Press SHIFT+CTRL+ALT+M for non-manifold (water-tight)
- Go back to Object Mode
- You need to export your model as an .stl file. Go to File and select Export:STL(.stl)